Bellow mentioned are the risk factors for cancers;
- Tobacco use
- Alcohol use
- Unhealthy diet
- Physical inactivity
- Some chronic infections
Approximately 15% of trusted online pharmacy reviews in 2012 were attributed to carcinogenic infections, like H. pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, and Epstein-Barr virus.
Hepatitis B and C virus and some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancers such as cervical cancer.
Reducing the risk factors
By avoiding risk factors between 30–50% of cancers can be prevented. We can reduce the burden of cancer through early detection of cancer and management of patients who develop cancer. There are high chances of cure if a cancer is diagnosed early.
Modify and avoid risk factors
These risk factors include:
- tobacco use (cigarettes and smokeless tobacco)
- unhealthy diet (low fruit and vegetable)
- lack of physical activity
- sexually transmitted HPV-infection
- other carcinogenic infections like hepatitis
- ionizing and ultraviolet radiation
- air pollution
- smoke from household use of solid fuels.
Tobacco use is responsible for approximately 22% of cancer-related deaths in world.
To prevent cancer, people may:
- avoidance of the risk factors
- vaccination against HPV and hepatitis B virus
- occupational hazards control
- reduction in ultraviolet radiation exposure
- reduction in ionizing radiation exposure (occupational or medical diagnostic imaging).
HPV and hepatitis B vaccination can prevent 1 million cancer cases each year.
In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cancer over the world, effective and affordable programs are required in;
- early diagnosis
- palliative care
Treatment includes surgery, medication and/or radiotherapy. Treatment is plannedon the basis of;
- tumor type
- available resources
Palliative care is also very essential component of cancer care. It focuses on improving the quality of life for cancer patients and their families.
Early detection and treatment can reduce the rate of Cancer mortality. Early detection has two components:
Early identification and diagnosis of cancer results in less morbidity, more probability of surviving, less expensive treatment, and patient is more likely to respond to effective treatment.
Early diagnosis consists of three main steps, that needs to be completed timely:
- awareness and accessing care
- clinical evaluation, diagnosis and staging
- access to effective treatment.
Early diagnosis is very crucial step in all cancers. If patient is not diagnosed earlythen curative treatment may no longer be an option in later stages of cancers.
Screening aims to identify individuals with abnormalities who have not developed any symptoms.
Standardized screening tests help identify disease in asymptomatic individuals (screening) or diagnose a disease in symptomatic individuals (early detection). A screening program is far more complex as compared to early diagnosis.
Examples of screening methods are:
- visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)
- HPV testing
- PAP cytology test
- mammography screening